FUN – OWU2 – Open Wine University 2

See on Scoop.itVeille Scientifique Agroalimentaire – Agronomie

Open Wine University is the viticulture and wine university open to all. Created in 2015 by the University of Burgundy, the MOOC OWU1 was a pioneer in the field of viticulture and wine. 

Today, this MOOC returns with the version OWU2, including new content and activities, all fully available in four languages: French, English, Spanish and Chinese. 

 During this five-week course, participants will discover the many facets of wine. After a few reminders on basic concepts, we will be asking whether wine is threatened by climate change, diseases or pests, and then we will explore the make-up of soils and how wine is made. 

Next, we will look at how ‘terroir’ develops and is promoted. Before the wine is ready to be served, we’ll need to look at bottling and aging. We will be looking at wine economy and history. Finally, we will discover that wine communication is a world in its own right.

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Publicités

Chapter 2: Diversity of Soil Organisms –

See on Scoop.itVeille Scientifique Agroalimentaire – Agronomie

Soil is one of the most diverse habitats on Earth. Soil biota includes archaea, bacteria, protists, tardigrades, rotifers, nematodes, acari (mites), collembola (springtails), worms (enchytraeids and earthworms), macroarthropods (e.g. ants, termites, centipedes, millipedes, woodlice, etc.) and burrowing mammals. It also includes plant roots, fungi and lichens. Root exudates attract a variety of organisms that either…

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North America: Insect-focused coalition looks to expand feed use for bugs

See on Scoop.itVeille Scientifique Agroalimentaire – Agronomie

The North American Coalition for Insect Agriculture’s (NACIA) mission​​ seeks to improve collaboration for stakeholders and provide a distinct voice to those looking to grow the use of insects in feed and food.

Producers of insects for use in feed and food products may need help educating clients, consumers and potential producers about the industry, and that is what the new group is trying to address, said Robert Allen, chairman of the NACIA board of directors.

The group is in the process of incorporating and becoming an established educational non-profit.

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Aliments bio : et si on regardait le verdict de 60 millions de consommateurs de plus près ?

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Dans son numéro du mois d’avril, 60 millions de consommateurs a passé au crible 74 aliments importés en France, provenant de plusieurs régions géographiques. Pour mener à bien cette enquête, plus de 600 pesticides de synthèse ont été recherchés. Le constat :

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Commercialisation : croissance des exportations de Beaujolais en 2017

See on Scoop.itVeille Scientifique Agroalimentaire – Agronomie

Les exportations de vins du Beaujolais ont continué à progresser en 2017. Elles représentent aujourd’hui 40 % des ventes en volume de ce vignoble. « Les chiffres des douanes françaises compilés par Business France parlent d’eux-mêmes : + 5,7 % en volume et + 7,8 % en valeur à fin 2017 (versus 2016) », indique Inter Beaujolais dans un communiqué paru mi-mars.

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Commercialisation : croissance des exportations de Beaujolais en 2017

See on Scoop.itVeille Scientifique Agroalimentaire – Agronomie

Les exportations de vins du Beaujolais ont continué à progresser en 2017. Elles représentent aujourd’hui 40 % des ventes en volume de ce vignoble. « Les chiffres des douanes françaises compilés par Business France parlent d’eux-mêmes : + 5,7 % en volume et + 7,8 % en valeur à fin 2017 (versus 2016) », indique Inter Beaujolais dans un communiqué paru mi-mars.

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Les insectes pourraient aider l’industrie à trouver de nouvelles levures à utiliser dans ses procédés de fabrication

See on Scoop.itVeille Scientifique Agroalimentaire – Agronomie

Yeasts are tiny fungi – but they play key roles in producing everything from beer and cheese to industrial chemicals and biofuels. And now scientists are proposing a new approach that could help these industries find new yeasts for use in their manufacturing processes.

Could Insects Help Us Find New Yeasts for Big Business? | NC State News | NC State University, 21.03.2018

Ecology of insect-yeast relationships | Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 21.03.2018
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/285/1875/20172733

 

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Comment les plantes acquièrent-elles leur forme ? Une contribution des signaux mécaniques

See on Scoop.itVeille Scientifique Agroalimentaire – Agronomie

La biologie du développement s’intéresse notamment aux changements de formes chez les organismes vivants. Bien que cette question soit par essence géométrique, elle implique à la fois des régulateurs biochimiques (comme les gènes et les hormones) et des facteurs mécaniques (rigidité des tissus, contraintes physiques). Des développements récents en imagerie et en modélisation permettent aujourd’hui d’intégrer ces différents composants pour mieux comprendre les mécanismes contrôlant la morphogenèse des êtres vivants. Ici, sur la base de nos travaux sur le méristème apical caulinaire d’Arabidopsis thaliana, j’invite le lecteur à entrer dans notre laboratoire pour illustrer cette nouvelle dynamique, en étudiant un mécanisme essentiel pour la forme des plantes : la synthèse de la cellulose dans les parois végétales, et son intégration dans une boucle de rétroaction mécanique.

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Agriculture et transition énergétique : les atouts du biogaz et de l’agroforesterie

See on Scoop.itVeille Scientifique Agroalimentaire – Agronomie

Lutter contre le réchauffement climatique nécessite de « décarboner » rapidement notre système énergétique en renonçant aux sources fossiles. 

 L’agriculture peut contribuer à cette transition en accroissant notre approvisionnement en énergies décarbonées. Mais toutes les stratégies ne sont pas gagnantes et il faut privilégier celles qui s’inscrivent dans une approche globale des systèmes de production agricoles. 

 Une telle approche relativise l’intérêt des biocarburants de première génération pour mettre en lumière les potentiels du biogaz agricole et l’intérêt des pratiques agroforestières, comme la régénérescence des haies.

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Engineered and coated with magnetic nanoparticles, bacteriophages can find and separate bacteria from food or water

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Certain viruses, called bacteriophages or just phages, naturally latch onto bacteria to infect them (SN: 7/12/03, p. 26). By tweaking the phages’ DNA and decking them out with magnetic nanoparticles, researchers created a tool that could both corral bacteria and force them to reveal themselves. These modifications can boost the sensitivity and speed of rooting out bacteria in tainted food or water, the researchers reported March 20 at the annual meeting of the American Chemical Society.

“You’re taking the power of what evolution has done … to bind bacteria, and then we’re just helping that out a little bit,” said Sam Nugen, a food and biosystems engineer who leads the team designing these phages at Cornell University.

Competing technologies for detecting bacteria use antibodies, the product of an immune response. But these are expensive to produce and work best in a narrow temperature and pH range. In contrast, phages “exist everywhere,” making them potentially more broadly useful as bacteria hunters, Nugen said. “They’ve had to evolve to bind well in much broader conditions than antibodies.”

Phages identify and grab bacteria using proteins on their leglike tail fibers, which form a strong bond with compounds on the bacterial cell surface. To infect the cell, the phage injects its genetic material. This hijacks the cell, forcing its machinery to produce phage clones.

Nugen and collaborators programmed phages to tag E. coli bacteria. The team’s engineered phages contained extra DNA that told the bacteria to make an easily detectable enzyme. When the infection caused the bacterial cells to rupture and release the new phages, a chemical reaction involving the enzyme produced a measurable signal: light, color or an electric current. For example, the phages exposedE. coli in milk and orange juice by turning the liquids red or pink.

The researchers also loaded the phages with nanoparticles with a magnetic iron and cobalt core. Once the phages latched onto the bacteria, researchers could use a magnet to round the bacteria up even before the bacteria ruptured and announced their presence. This allowed the researchers to detect low concentrations of bacteria: less than 10 E. coli cells in half a cup of water. Conventional methods grow the bacteria into colonies to find them, which can take up to two days. But using the phages, Nugen and his colleagues skipped this step and found the cells within a few hours.

Using phages for magnetic separation would be “really nice for food and environmental samples because they tend to be really dirty,” said Michael Wiederoder, a bioengineer at the U.S. Army Natick Soldier Research, Development and Engineering Center in Massachusetts, who was not involved in the research. The salt, sugar and fats in food can slow the reactions of antibody-based tests, he said.

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