Most fermented products are generated by a mixture of microbes. These microbial consortia possess various biological activities responsible for the nutritional, hygienic, and aromatic qualities of the product. Wine is no exception.
Substantial yeast and bacterial biodiversity is observed on grapes, and in both must and wine. The diverse microorganisms present interact throughout the winemaking process. The interactions modulate the hygienic and sensorial properties of the wine.
Many studies have been conducted to elucidate the nature of these interactions, with the aim of establishing better control of the two fermentations occurring during wine processing. However, wine is a very complex medium making such studies difficult. In this review, we present the current state of research on microbial interactions in wines.
We consider the different kinds of interactions between different microorganisms together with the consequences of these interactions. We underline the major challenges to obtaining a better understanding of how microbes interact.
Finally, strategies and methodologies that may help unravel microbe interactions in wine are suggested.
Wine microbiome, a dynamic world of microbial interactions.
Youzhong Liu , Sandrine Rousseaux, Raphaëlle Tourdot-Maréchal, Mohand Sadoudi, Régis Gougeon, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin & Hervé Alexandre.
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. Accepted 30 October 2014.