Insects play an important role in the dietary system of various ethnic groups of northeastern states of India. They provide nutritional security and cure various body ailments. The number of edible insects eaten in a state varies with the land and tribes. The ethnic people of Arunachal Pradesh consume about 158 species of insects, whereas tribes of Nagaland consume only 42 species of insects. The members of various tribes choose the edible insects on the basis of their traditional belief, taste and regional and seasonal availability. This chapter outlines various insect species eaten by various tribes, the association of these insects with social and cultural belief and their importance in medicine and economy of these states.