Experimental design approach in the synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymers specific for iprodione fungicide

Manal Bitara, b, Jacqueline Maaloulyc, Hanna Chebibc, Adrien Lerbreta, Philippe Cayota, Elias Bou-Marouna, , a Unité Procédés Alimentaires et Microbiologiques, UMR A 02.102, AgroSup Dijon, Université de Bourgogne, 1 esplanade Erasme, F-21000 Dijon, Franceb Equipe de Chimie Analytique des Molécules Bioactives, IPHC-LC4, UMR 7178, Université de Strasbourg, 74 route du Rhin, 67400 Illkirch, Francec Lebanese Food Packaging, ER004, Faculty of Science II, Lebanese University, B.P. 90656 Jdeideth El Matn, Fanar, Lebanon

An experimental design (ED) approach was applied to study the weight of three factors in the synthesis of a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) specific for iprodione fungicide. The objective was to obtain a high specific polymer with the best performance of iprodione binding. Thirteen iprodione-imprinted polymers and 13 non-imprinted polymers (NIP) were synthesized according to ED having 3 influencing factors: the polymerization method, the crosslinker nature and the functional monomer type. For each factor, two levels were studied: bulk and precipitation polymerization for the first factor, trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TRIM) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) for the second factor, and methacrylamide (MAM) alone or with styrene for the third factor. The ED responses were: the imprinting factor, the site number and the apparent affinity constant. They were determined after studying the interactions between iprodione and each MIP and NIP in hydro-alcoholic medium. The best polymer of the ED was synthesized using MAM as functional monomer, EGDMA as crosslinker and precipitation polymerization. It has an imprinting factor of 2.4, a site number of 1172 and an affinity constant of 19.36. The best MIP was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Nitrogen sorption isotherms. The best MIP has a mesoporous structure with a high specific surface area of 407 m2·g− 1. Molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) was successfully applied, using the best MIP, to preconcentrate iprodione from a white wine containing two competing fungicides.

 

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Are gluten free foods healthier than non-gluten free foods? An evaluation of supermarket products in Australia

Despite tremendous growth in the consumption of gluten-free (GF) foods, there is a lack of evaluation of their nutritional profile and how they compare with non-GF foods. The present study…

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Les innovations technologiques, leviers de réduction du gaspillage dans le secteur agro-alimentaire

La FAO estimait en 2011 à plus de 30% la part de la production alimentaire perdue ou gaspillée à l’échelle de la planète. Cet ordre de grandeur explique que la lutte contre le gaspillage soit devenue ces dernières années une  préoccupation publique majeure. C’est dans ce contexte qu’a été lancée, à l’initiative des ministères chargés de l’Agriculture et de l’Économie, une étude pour identifier les innovations technologiques susceptibles de limiter le gaspillage aux niveaux de la distriibution, de la restauration et de la consommation finale par les ménages. Après un bilan de la situation actuelle et des perspectives d’avenir, l’étude évalue 26 technologies, teste leur maturité, leur intérêt pour les industriels et leur degré d’acceptation par les consommateurs ainsi que les conditions de leur développement. Elle livre aussi des pistes pour augmenter l’effort de recherche et d’innovation, et formule des recommandations aux différents acteurs publics et privés.

 

* Télécharger la lettre d’information :

Analyse, Centre d’Etudes et de Prospective n° 80, juin 2015

http://agreste.agriculture.gouv.fr/IMG/pdf/analyse801506.pdf

 

 

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A Secreted MIF Cytokine Enables Aphid Feeding and Represses Plant Immune Responses: Current Biology

Aphids attack virtually all plant species and cause serious crop damages in agriculture [ 1 ]. Despite their dramatic impact on food production, little is known about the molecular processes that allow aphids to exploit their host plants. To date, few aphid salivary proteins have been identified that are essential for aphid feeding, and their nature and function remain largely unknown [ 2–4 ]. Here, we show that a macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is secreted in aphid saliva. In vertebrates, MIFs are important pro-inflammatory cytokines regulating immune responses [ 5, 6 ]. MIF proteins are also secreted by parasites of vertebrates, including nematodes, ticks, and protozoa, and participate in the modulation of host immune responses [ 7–9 ]. The finding that a plant parasite secretes a MIF protein prompted us to question the role of the cytokine in the plant-aphid interaction. We show here that expression of MIF genes is crucial for aphid survival, fecundity, and feeding on a host plant. The ectopic expression of aphid MIFs in leaf tissues inhibits major plant immune responses, such as the expression of defense-related genes, callose deposition, and hypersensitive cell death. Functional complementation analyses in vivo allowed demonstrating that MIF1 is the member of the MIF protein family that allows aphids to exploit their host plants. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a cytokine that is secreted by a parasite to modulate plant immune responses. Our findings suggest a so-far unsuspected conservation of infection strategies among parasites of animal and plant species.

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Les pucerons ont développé un mécanisme inhibant les défenses immunitaires de la plante. Des chercheurs de l’Inra et du CNRS (Institut de Recherche sur la Biologie de l’Insecte, UMR 7261, CNRS/Université François-Rabelais, Parc Grandmont, 37200 Tours, France) ont mis en évidence que le puceron utilise  l’un de ses propres mécanismes de défense pour attaquer et réprimer les réponses immunitaires des végétaux.

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